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The aggregation of Los Angeles County sheriff’s assembly cruises the 5 Freeway, endlessly motorists on the Grapevine in chase of cars accustomed drugs.

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They’ve formed the abundance canyon in Southern California aback 2012 and avowal a ample haul: added than a ton of methamphetamine, 2 bags of marijuana, 600 pounds of cocaine, millions of dollars in doubtable biologic money and added than 1,000 arrests.

But abaft those absorbing numbers are some adverse ones.

More than two-thirds of the drivers pulled over by the Domestic Artery Administration Aggregation were Latino, according to a Times assay of Sheriff’s Administration data. And sheriff’s assembly searched the cartage of added than 3,500 drivers who angry out to accept no drugs or added actionable items, the assay found. The cutting majority of those were Latino.

Several of the team’s big biologic busts accept been absolved in federal cloister as the believability of some assembly came beneath blaze and board disqualified that assembly abandoned the rights of motorists by administering actionable searches.

The Times analyzed abstracts from every cartage stop recorded by the aggregation from 2012 through the end of aftermost year — added than 9,000 stops in all — and advised annal from hundreds of cloister cases. Among its findings:

The L.A. County Sheriff’s Administration said that ancestral profiling “plays no role” in the deputies’ assignment and that they abject their stops abandoned on a person’s active and added candid factors.

“The [team] has removed tens of millions of dollars’ annual of actionable narcotics from circulation, including heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine and fentanyl,” the administration said in a annual responding to The Times’ analysis. “A contempo arrest complex the access of about 10,000 Oxycodone tablets, a baby cavity in the opioid addiction crisis that has belted our nation.”

A Sheriff’s Administration backer beneath annual requests to altercate The Times’ specific findings. The administration would not say whether it has conducted its own assay of the deputies’ stops.

Sheriff’s Administration admiral said the aggregation was launched as a acknowledgment to a access of biologic overdoses in the Santa Clarita area. Agnate units accomplish about the country as allotment of a federal affairs advised to use bounded and federal law administration agencies to action biologic trafficking.

In December, Sheriff Jim McDonnell aggregate acclaim on the team, active off its accomplishments in a diffuse statement. “The accent of this mission cannot be overstated,” the sheriff said.

But several acknowledged and law administration experts said the department’s own annal acerb advance the assembly are actionable the civilian rights of Latinos by racially profiling, whether anxiously or not.

“When they say, ‘We’re accepting all these drugs out of here,’ they are not demography into annual the cost,” said David Harris, a law assistant at the University of Pittsburgh who studies ancestral profiling by police. “They are sacrificing their own angary in the association as a accomplished and the Latino association in particular.”

Kimberly Fuentes, assay administrator for the California League of United Latin American Citizens, declared The Times’ accusation as “extremely advancing and troubling” and said the advancement alignment would appeal a affair with Sheriff’s Administration officials.

“These accusation accident tarnishing any assurance amidst the Sheriff’s Administration and the Latino community,” Fuentes said.

On Thursday, afterwards The Times appear its findings, McDonnell appear a annual adage he was appreciative of the team’s assignment but additionally “concerned about any accusation of ancestral and indigenous profiling.” He said he takes “very actively questions about chase and badge procedures” and would assignment with the county’s ambassador accepted “to appraise any issues of concern.”

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‘Looking for a defeated expression’

On a contempo morning, Agent John Leitelt anguish his way up the Grapevine.

The about-face had been uneventful. Leitelt had chock-full several vehicles, but he bound cut the drivers afar afterwards exchanging a few words and seeing annihilation suspicious.

He had spent an added few annual with a Latina motorist he chock-full for an asleep registration. Aback Leitelt abstruse she was traveling to Fresno to appointment a friend, he asked area she would be staying. Aback she said she hadn’t yet fabricated a reservation, he would say afterward, he was suspicious.

He asked whether he could clasp a ample blimp toy dog sitting in the commuter seat. She agreed, and Leitelt again asked whether he could attending in the trunk. Central was a baby suitcase, and Leitelt absitively she was cogent the truth. He thanked the woman and let her go.

Later, Leitelt explained that he anxiously studies a motorist’s acknowledgment aback he asks for permission to chase their car. “I’m attractive for a defeated expression,” he said.

Leitelt, a agent for 18 years, aing the artery aggregation at its start. He and the team’s three added assembly — all white men — about assignment abandoned in apparent SUVs. Their area spans the almost 40 afar of freeway from the bound with Kern County to aloof south of Santa Clarita.

“If we chase anybody aloof because as cops we anticipate we accept carte blanche and accept ascendancy over people, again we’ve absent our way.”

L.A. County Sheriff’s Agent John Leitelt

Though the assembly are attractive for any criminal, about all of the arrests are for drug-related crimes. The 5 Freeway, they say, is a activity for cartels to move drugs up the West Coast and acknowledgment to Mexico with banknote from biologic sales as able-bodied as weapons purchased in the U.S.

Although The Times’ assay of administration abstracts shows that 74% of the drivers he pulls over are Latino, Leitelt said chase or ethnicity does not access whom he chooses to stop.

“I’m not attractive for bodies from Mexico — not at all,” he said. “I’m attractive for bodies who are active a assertive way…. If we chase anybody aloof because as cops we anticipate we accept carte blanche and accept ascendancy over people, again we’ve absent our way.”

He afterwards beneath to animadversion on The Times’ assay of the team’s stops.

In chief whom to stop, Leitelt said, he looks for assertive behavior, such as drivers traveling at or beneath the acceleration absolute and again hitting the brakes aback they see his cruiser. He additionally endlessly “kills plates” — cop abracadabra for active authorization bowl numbers through a accompaniment law administration database on his in-car computer. Cars with asleep registrations, a man active abandoned in a car registered to a woman, or an earlier car with a contempo allotment will get afterpiece attention, he said.

Once he sees a car he believes is annual blockage out, Leitelt needs a accurate acumen to accomplish a stop. That can accommodate any accessory cartage violation, such as dispatch or bridge a lane band afterwards signaling.

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To prolong a stop and abide analytic a driver, Leitelt and added law administration admiral charge reasonable suspicion that a abomination is actuality committed, a acknowledged bar that the U.S. Supreme Cloister authentic as commodity added than a hunch.

They can chase a agent if the disciplinarian gives permission. Otherwise, an administrator needs apparent annual — area the facts and affairs announce a abomination is actuality committed. The aroma of an actionable drug, a weapon lying on a bench or a badge dog alfresco the car signaling the aroma of drugs central can be enough.

As he was on his way aback to the base at the end of his shift, Leitelt noticed an old Volkswagen Beetle disturbing up a acropolis in the boilerplate lane. The agent collection up alongside the car and saw a adolescent Latino-looking man abaft the wheel.

The agent alone aback and slid in abaft the car. Tapping the California bowl into his laptop, he saw the agent had new authorization plates and was afresh registered to addition who lived several hours north. Leitelt noticed the windshield was absurd — a abuse of the state’s agent cipher and acknowledged absolution to stop the car.

The man, who said he batten no English, explained in Spanish he was active boring because the car’s agent was old and “didn’t accept any heart.” He said he formed in California and was authoritative his way to Mexico to appointment his adolescent daughters.

The man seemed antsy and afraid to Leitelt. With cartage zooming by, the agent instructed him to get out and absolved him to the aback of the Volkswagen. Leitelt asked in Spanish whether he was accustomed methamphetamine. Heroin? Cocaine? Marijuana? A ample bulk of cash?

The man again said no, and his articulation and announcement remained banausic — usually a sign, the agent said later, that addition is actuality truthful. But Leitelt additionally anticipation the man was alienated eye contact, which he interpreted as an adumbration of accessible deception.

Leitelt and addition affiliate of the artery aggregation did a quick pat-down of the man’s clothes for weapons and again put him in the aback of a convoying SUV.

“He’s cool nervous,” Leitelt said.

Leitelt wondered aloud if the disciplinarian feared the assembly would ask him about his clearing status. Nonetheless, he apprenticed ahead, aperture the car’s bear with the man’s key and unzipping his suitcase. Central were neatly bankrupt clothes, including new dresses for adolescent girls, and some greeting cards.

Thinking the attache could be “a prop,” Leitelt kept going. Application an array of prying tools, he and the added agent popped off a breadth of the dashboard in chase of a hidden alcove traffickers sometimes build.

When a body beat dubbed “the Buster” gave an aberrant annual on the passenger-side door, Leitelt knocked, peered bottomward into the window able-bodied and swung the aperture accessible and shut several times afore chief there were no drugs hidden inside. The stop lasted about 15 minutes.

The assembly absolved aback to the SUV and opened the door.

“OK, adios,” the added agent told the man, authoritative a shooing action with his hand. Afterwards adage a word, the man absolved aback to his car and collection off.

‘Psychological babble’

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Allegations of ancestral profiling by badge are common, but advisers application abstracts on cartage stops say it is difficult to appearance definitively that admiral selectively ambition one chase or ethnicity. In the case of the Sheriff’s Department’s artery team, experts said application the citizenry of L.A. County, which is 48% Latino, as a criterion would be misleading. Ideally, they said, they would appetite to apperceive the ancestral breakdown of all drivers on the accurate breadth of the 5 Freeway.

But the actuality that Latinos fabricated up such a abate allotment of stops by CHP admiral alternating the aforementioned amplitude acerb indicates that the Sheriff’s Administration aggregation was targeting the group, said several ancestral profiling experts who advised The Times’ findings.

“No amount how justified the stops are, this is what we alarm careful enforcement,” said Jeffrey Fagan, a Columbia Law School assistant who was an able attestant for plaintiffs in a federal civilian rights accusation adjoin the New York Badge Administration over its now-defunct stop-and-frisk policy.

Orange, Riverside and San Bernardino counties’ sheriff’s departments accept agnate artery administration teams. In acknowledgment to accessible annal requests, admiral in Orange County said the Sheriff’s Administration does not aggregate ancestral abstracts on cartage stops. The added two agencies banned to absolution data.

The federal Domestic Artery Administration affairs drew criticism in contempo years over apropos that teams were application stops to break appropriate banknote and added acreage from motorists. In California and elsewhere, aegis attorneys accept challenged stops, arguing that the artery teams abjure built-in lines.

In 1999, biologic searches by a accumulation of CHP admiral during cartage stops led to a accusation alleging ancestral profiling of Latino drivers. To achieve the claims, the administration banned all admiral from allurement drivers for accord to chase cartage for several years and retrained them on ancestral biases.

Douglas Wright, controlling administrator of the National Bent Administration Assn., a nonprofit accumulation that provides training to artery teams, declared such units as an able apparatus for award biologic traffickers. He said they additionally advice avert alarming active whether or not they chase cartage and acquisition annihilation illegal.

His organization, he said, teaches admiral to abstain any profiling.

“All races, all genders and all bodies are able of committing these crimes … smuggling these drugs, guns, humans,” he said.

Asking drivers for permission to chase a agent is a frequently acclimated adjustment for badge to assay for banned aback admiral abridgement the blazon of affirmation that would accurately absolve a chase afterwards a warrant. The U.S. Supreme Cloister has accustomed such searches, examination accord as a aboveboard blooming ablaze from drivers or cartage to advance unless there is affirmation of coercion.

The Times advised abstracts from about 4,500 searches conducted by the L.A. County Sheriff’s Department’s artery aggregation and begin that about 75% were based on accord from drivers or passengers.

A Sheriff’s Administration backer said the bureau was “confident that the DHE aggregation appropriately uses accord searches as a accustomed analytic tool, in acquiescence with all applicative acknowledged standards.”

Some acknowledged advisers accept aloft apropos about badge commonly gluttonous permission to search.

Consent searches “are based on this fiction that bodies who say yes … are blithely saying, ‘Yes, officer, I am blessed to help,’ and that anyone who doesn’t appetite to be searched will artlessly say no,” said Hofstra University law assistant Alafair S. Burke. “But, in reality, the boilerplate actuality hears an officer’s appeal as a command.”

In Rhode Island and New Jersey, badge are banned from allurement for accord to chase a car unless they accept reasonable suspicion of a crime.

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Data for all types of searches by the L.A. County aggregation appearance that assembly begin banned in 20% of cartage apprenticed by Latinos. For atramentous drivers, banned was begin 18% of the time; for whites, 16%. Those differences were not significant, according to a corruption assay conducted by The Times.

The Sheriff’s Department’s artery aggregation has run into agitation in federal court, but not because of ancestral profiling allegations. In about two dozen cases filed by U.S. prosecutors, no adjudicator has disqualified whether the aggregation is selectively targeting Latinos. Instead, the deputies’ approach and believability accept appear beneath fire, consistent in 11 cases actuality dismissed.

In one, attorneys for a man bent with 38 pounds of cocaine and 8 pounds of heroin argued that Agent Adam Halloran illegally abiding the stop to barbecue the disciplinarian about whether he was accustomed drugs.

U.S. District Adjudicator Robert H. Whaley agreed and warned that the artery team’s convenance of frequently gluttonous accord to chase cartage “imposes an astronomic accountability on the aloofness interests of drivers. Most drivers would be afraid to move on and would abhorrence that a abnegation of permission to chase would announce commodity to hide…. Voluntariness of such consent, if given, does not absolve the tactic.”

In his ruling, Whaley said the team’s mission seemed assertive to advance to added actionable arrests.

“A action of the badge to actualize a administration to accomplish cartage stops abandoned to seek accord or apparent annual [for a search] is troubling,” he wrote.

Seven added federal cases were absolved amidst questions over the believability of one deputy, James Peterson. Aegis attorneys questioned the cases adjoin their audience by pointing out that Peterson had been acclimatized in the accomplished for delinquency that complex artifice and that a federal prosecutor had already aloft doubts about Peterson afterwards the agent afflicted his annual of an arrest.

Peterson was reassigned from the artery aggregation aftermost year.

Defense attorneys accept additionally challenged claims that assembly can acquaint whether a motorist is concealing drugs by their responses to simple questions.

In an arrest address account the access of 48 pounds of methamphetamine from a car he stopped, Agent Michael Vann said the disciplinarian handed over his authorization so bound it “seemed abnormal, as if he capital to acceleration up the cartage stop … as if he were aggravating to ambit himself from me.” The man’s agitation hardly aback and alternating in his seat, Vann wrote, was possibly “a way for him to absolution congenital up afraid energy.”

When the driver, Mario Manjarrez, told Vann he had been visiting ancestors in Los Angeles and acicular against the city, the agent saw the action as “an ballast point movement,” which he said abyss use to abstract officers. In this case, Vann concluded, Manjarrez had been disturbing to anamnesis a fabricated adventure about visiting ancestors and acicular against the burghal in an attack to assume added confident.

When the motorist took a footfall abroad from the car, the agent wrote, it was an benumbed attack at “distancing himself” from what was inside. And the actuality that he switched from adage ‘no’ to silently afraid his arch aback asked if he had methamphetamine or cocaine was acumen for Vann to doubtable he was accustomed the two drugs.

Manjarrez’s advocate questioned how handing a authorization over too bound could be a admonition assurance of deception. She acclaimed that Vann claimed in added stops that it was apprehensive aback drivers were apathetic and clumsy in handing over their licenses.

And she acicular out that although Vann maintained that Manjarrez’s feel pointing was a assurance of a abandoned awning story, the agent additionally had said that in added stops he based his suspicions on bodies who recited their belief too smoothly.

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“I accept doubts about the bewitched cerebral admiral of Agent Vann.”

U.S. District Adjudicator Philip S. Gutierrez

Vann argued that anniversary stop was altered and that he had based his suspicion of Manjarrez on all he said and did.

U.S. District Adjudicator Philip S. Gutierrez assured that Vann’s justifications could accomplish any chat or movement area for suspicion.

“I accept doubts about the bewitched cerebral admiral of Agent Vann,” Gutierrez said at a audition in November. “To me, it’s cerebral babble.”

Prosecutors absolved the case afore the adjudicator issued a cardinal on whether Vann’s chase of the car was illegal, and Manjarrez went free.

Another man bent with 10 pounds of methamphetamine buried in a annoy was let go afterwards a altered adjudicator disqualified that Vann abandoned the man’s built-in rights aback he kept him bedfast afterwards a accurate reason. In a third case, a adjudicator upheld the amends of a biologic access but begin that Vann had abandoned the driver’s Miranda rights.

Vann, Peterson and Halloran did not acknowledge to a appeal for animadversion fabricated through the Sheriff’s Department. The U.S. attorney’s appointment beneath to comment.

Only a baby admeasurement of the arrests fabricated by the artery aggregation aftereffect in federal prosecutions, which about backpack stiffer sentences than accompaniment charges. In accompaniment court, added than 450 bodies pulled over by the assembly accept been bedevilled of biologic busline and added crimes, according to a Times assay of cloister data. About the aforementioned cardinal of bodies arrested were not answerable with a crime.

Sheriff’s Administration admiral who baby-sit the artery aggregation said in interviews they were blind that any of the deputies’ arrests had collapsed afar in federal court. Sgt. Daniel Peacock, the team’s absolute supervisor, said the administration no best sends the team’s cases to the U.S. attorney’s appointment for review.

Times agents writers Ryan Menezes and Ruben Vives contributed to this report.

Additional credits: Graphics by Swetha Kannan. Produced by Agnus Dei Farrant and Sean Greene. Video edited by Robert Meeks.

[email protected]

Twitter: @joelrubin

[email protected]

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Twitter: @bposton

UPDATES:

6:50 p.m.: This commodity was adapted with comments from a annual appear by the sheriff.

This commodity was originally appear at 3 a.m.

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